Someone can fracture a bone by falling, being hit, having a joint pulled or twisted, crushing, or a bone is bent. Any break in a bone is called a fracture. It is often that hospital treatment is the only place where fractures can be confirmed – with the use of X-Rays. Someone who has fractured a bone will usually be in a lot of pain. More serious cases will have a deformity, bruising, swelling, and also other problems around there with mobility. They will have other problems in moving the injured part and in some cases, you may see that one limb is shorter than another one. The signs and symptoms will depend on where and how the fracture has happened. A fracture of the skull will look a lot different from a fracture to the pelvis.

Types of Fractures

  • Closed breaks or fractures are where the bone is broken but remains under the skin. Major complications from this include internal bleeding and possible nerve damage.
  • Open or Compound fractures are where the bone punctures the skin and the bone is exposed. There will probably be lots of bleeding.
  • Dislocations are where a joint between two bones comes apart.

Treatment for breaks is to try and immobilise the limb in the position you find it. This avoids any extra damage or pain to the person. Obviously try and professional help as quickly as possible. This could either be by going to a local hospital or clinic or alerting the Emergency Medical Services.

For more information on training courses, visit our “Courses” page which also includes our First Responder and First Person on Scene (FPOS) Courses.


  1. Pingback: Tourniquets - First Aid Wiki